The final report is out which includes many recommendations or action items to police agencies moving forward. The goal of the recommendations is to “strengthen community policing and trust among law enforcement officers and the communities they serve.”
Recommendations were made in Six Key Areas:
- Building Trust and Legitimacy
- Police and Oversight
- Technology and Social Media
- Community Policing and Crime Reduction
- Training and Education
- Officer Wellness and Safety
The time is ripe for forging academic researcher and police agency partnerships to evaluate new methods implemented based on the recommendations in an effort to determine best practices that can be replicated by other agencies.
The full report can be accessed here at the USDOJ/COPS website.
An interim analysis of domestic violence offenders who have been notified through the High Point Police Department’s focused deterrence initiative reveals that we know quite a bit how well the strategy is working in reducing domestic violence recidivism and with what types of offenders.
First of all, in general, the strategy of notifying domestic violence offenders that the police department now has a new way of dealing with domestic violence and is taking domestic violence crimes seriously works to deter future domestic violence recidivism.
The notification message goes onto to say that we [the police department] know who you are and you are now on a list being tracked for any future domestic violence offenses. Further domestic violence will result in swift, certain, and severe consequences. The offender’s anonymity is stripped and the offender is told that the victim is no longer driving the process. The police department is now taking charge. A seemingly simple concept has had rather astounding results when compared to traditional approaches to deter domestic violence. The graph below shows the 6-month and 1-year recidivism rates for notified offenders across offender categories in High Point.We have found that certain offenders are more likely than others to recidivate after notification at both the C and D levels.
First, the domestic violence history of an offender matters in whether or not they are likely to reoffend after notification. For both C- and D-level offenders, if they had a prior arrest for domestic violence before notification, they were more likely to reoffend after notification than offenders who did not have a prior domestic violence arrest. Therefore, it helps to know who is being notified based on their past arrest history and there may be room for adjusting the notification message or delivery method to account for past history in hopes of making the notification more successful in deterring future domestic violence for high-risk offenders. While most C-notified offenders (82.7%) did not reoffend after notification, 17.3% did reoffend. When looking at the C-level reoffenders, 60% had a prior domestic violence arrest before notification compared to only 32% of offenders who did not reoffend after C-notification. C-list reoffenders also had significantly more total domestic violence arrests prior to C-notification (1.35 prior domestic violence arrests on average) compared to non-reoffenders (.67 prior domestic violence arrests on average). A similar trend was found for D-notified offenders. Most D-notified offenders (77.6%) did not reoffend after notification with reoffenders being slightly more likely than non-reoffenders to have had a prior domestic violence arrest before notification.
Age of the offender at the time of their 1st domestic violence arrest is important in predicting whether the offender will reoffend after notification. Non-reoffenders were statistically significantly older at the age of first domestic violence arrest as compared to reoffenders. The average age of first domestic violence arrest for C-level reoffenders was 30.1 years which was significantly younger than non-reoffenders whose average age of first domestic violence arrest was 32.5 years. However, there was no significant difference between age at notification for C-list reoffenders and non-reoffenders. For D-list offenders, age at notification was associated with whether or not the offender reoffend after notification. D-notified reoffenders tended to be slightly younger at time of notification (average age at notification was 33.1 years) compared to non-reoffenders (average age at notification was 36.2 years). Like with the C-list trend, D-list reoffenders tended to be younger at age of first domestic violence arrest (average age was 30.9 years) compared to non-reoffenders (average age was 33.0 years).
Certain offenders reoffend very quickly after notification and they are very likely to reoffend again as they escalate up the offender notification categories. Specifically, if an offender quickly reoffended after D-notification (defined as getting a new domestic violence arrest within 180 days of initial notification), they were more likely to reoffend again after C-notification as compared to D-notified offender who were not quick reoffenders. 38% of Quick Reoffenders after D-notification went onto to reoffend after C notification. See graph below for more details.
What do we do now with what we know?
- Can we take advantage of this knowledge based on what the data shows us about reoffenders to change the messaging or process in some way to better deter high risk offenders?
- Other potential risk factors for reoffense after notification were: 1) being male, 2) being young, especially for C-list offenders, and 3) being an offender who qualified for D notification, but could not be located or otherwise reached to receive the D notification message.
- What can be done to ensure that no offenders who should be notified fall through the cracks? In order for this strategy, or any focused deterrence strategy to be successful, offenders must be met with certain, severe, and swift consequences for their offending behavior.
The full interim report can be accessed here: Nov 2014 Interim Report_UNCG Notified Offenders OFDVI Evaluation
Our partners in Fayetteville have gotten positive press about what they are doing to help ex-felons get a positive start. Mr. Tommy Kinlaw, a community member and partner with Fayetteville Police Department in their PSN (Operation Ceasefire) focused deterrence efforts, was recently featured in an article in the Fayetteville Observer. According to the article, “Kinlaw has become the face of recent community efforts to better transition services for former offenders looking to re-enter society”. Kinlaw runs a grocery store and believes that the community must step up and give ex-offenders a chance to get on their feet– and that is exactly what Kinlaw does. He has been known to hire ex-offenders on the spot, giving them the opportunity to go to work when many potential employers would turn them away. Kinlaw admits that he does not know exactly how many ex-offenders work for him, but he thinks maybe about half a dozen and he does not really delve into their criminal past. For Kinlaw, each new hire gets a clean slate.
The article goes onto to describe Kinlaw’s upbringing and experience and showcases some examples of the lives he has been able to change through his worldview and willingness to give folks a chance. The full article is available here.
Mr. Kinlaw will also be speaking at the upcoming PSN conference which will be hosted in Fayetteville May 5 & 6. For more information about the conference and how to register, please click: PSN 2015 Conference flier
An article in the Blue Ridge Times was published which highlights the NC Network’s evaluation and expertise about the Offender Focused Domestic Violence Initiative in High Point, NC. Henderson, NC among other sites across the state and country are eager to learn more about the strategy and its potential success in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Last week, the NC Network’s John Weil and Stacy Sechrist presented along with Chief Kepley, Captain Rummage, and Lt. Carter from Lexington (NC) Police Department about the strategy as it is being implemented there. The presentation took place at the 3rd Innovations in Domestic and Sexual Violence Research and Practice Conference which was hosted by the Center for Women’s Health and Wellness at the University of NC at Greensboro.
In Lexington, notified offender recidivism rates are averaging about 8.8% across notification types since the initiative began in July 2014. In addition to lowering recidivism rates for intimate partner domestic violence, the strategy has worked to bring together professionals across disciplines who are working with domestic violence offenders, victims, and families across systems to collaborate on solving problems and alleviating barriers that generally exist in dealing with domestic violence. The system is now coming together to address domestic violence offenders in novel ways to demonstrate the partnership’s commitment to swift, certain, and severe consequences for domestic violence offenses. Lt. Carter who works daily in the operations of the strategy in Lexington was able to share real-world experiences and examples of how the system has changed and worked together to show domestic violence offenders a new approach that they have not seen before. The offenders are getting the message that Lexington Police Department and its partners are taking domestic violence very seriously. And, victims are reaping the benefits.
For a copy of the presentation in partnership with the Lexington Police Department, please click Innovations 2015 Conference Presentation NCNSC and LPD.
We are very happy to announce that the Fayetteville Police Department, with coordinator Lisa Jayne, have received PSN grant funding which will focus on violent crime reduction in the Bonnie Doone area of the City. NCNSC will serve as the research partner for that grant.
In partnership with the PD, the United States Attorney’s Office, District Attorney’s Office, community members, and resource providers, a plan will be developed to focus law enforcement and social service resources on the most violent and prolific offenders in the area. NCNSC will conduct a group audit and incident review for the Bonnie Doone area and produce a report which will overview the crime dynamics currently driving violence in the area. The report will provide a foundation from which the strategy can be formulated. Fayetteville PD will use part of the grant funds for surveillance cameras to be installed in the area and to facilitate community events in the area.
We are very enthusiastic about working with the Fayetteville Police Department and other partners on this initiative and we send a big congratulations to the team!